KEATS AND SHELLEY AND "DE BEWEGING VAN TACHTIG"
cleverness and virtuosity that had precious little real hearing upon life; there was little to connect it with the direct contemplation to be given in the 'eighties. The simple truth is that in '37 there was given for leader a man with talent, energy, artistic ideas; while in their turn the Tachtigers were unequivocally entitled to claim a man with genius — and a "daimoon". With the poetical theory of Kloos I shall but deal in outline, before going on to consider in detail its infiltration with the theories of certain English critics of poetry, particularly Shelley and Wordsworth. It has been set out succinctly by Frans Coenen: "De drie formules van de Tachtiger aesthetica, waarom zooveel te doen is geweest, luiden: Xunst is passie, vorm en inhoud zijn één, en de kunst om de kunst." 1 Van Deyssel, however, I think, does even better with his statement of the three historie slogans: 'TArt pour PArt", "De allerindividueelste Expressie van de allerindivideelste Emotie" and "Vorm en Inhoud zijn één."2 Haighton, again, makes play with the same three "grondstellingen", but places the second one third and qualifies it by using the label "voor de poëzie." 3 Khouw Bian Tie sets out to follow him along this line, but gets hopelessly entangled in trying to deal with slogans two and three as virtually one and indivisible, and in the end might well have taken the Tachtigers at their word when they maintained that they had no precise system of criticism, contenting himself with the knowledge, as Coenen is inclined to do, "dat zij heel goed wisten, wat zij in kunst zochten". 4 The statement that "kunst is passie" does, as it stands, scant justice, I think, to Kloos' real conception of poetry. "Zoo het waar is," he more fully explains in the much-cited Preface, "dat men onder poëzie moet verstaan dien volleren, dieperen gemoedstoe-
1 "Studiën van de Tachtiger Beweging," p. 18.
2 Vide "De Nieuwe Gids," 1938 I, p. 410.
3 Vide, "Een Nieuwe Komeet aan den Literairen Hemel," p. 92.
4 "Studiën van de Tachtiger Beweging," p. 149.