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THE SUBJUNCTIVE AND THE CONDITIONAL MOOD IN MODERN ENGLISH.

Introduction.

By mood we may understand a form of the finite verb, or a verb-group, by means of which the speaker expresses his mental attitude towards the fulfilment of the action or state expressed by the predicate.

a) This attitude is, in the majority of cases, one of considering the fulfilment of the action or state as a fact without any accessory notions, and the predication answering to this attitude may, accordingly, be termed predication of certainty. It is symbolized bythat form of the finite verb which is called the indicative mood.

The indicative mood is also frequently employed in what may be called a neutral way, i. e. without any thought of certainty or uncertainty on the part of the speaker.

b) This attitude may be one of conviction arrived at by the process of reasoning, and the predication answering to this attitude may be called predication of conviction. It is not symbolized by any particular form of the finite verb, but by the verb must, which, although primarily a subjunctive or conditional form, is now feit as an ordinary indicative.

I must have been mistaken. Mason, Eng. Gram., § 241.

The spirit must have heardhimthinking. Dick., Chrlstm. Car.

c) This attitude may be one of uncertainty, and the predi cation which expresses this attitude may, accordingly, be styled predication of uncertainty, or uncertain predication. It is symbolized by that form of the finite verb which is commonly called the subjunctive (mood), or by a variety of auxiliaries, which are

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