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frequently used in analpgous cases as the subjunctive (mood), but not seldom have an application of their own, i. e. one which is not shared by the subjunctive (mood).

Thus Long live the KingI and May the King live long.' have practically the same meaning, and may as used in the last sentence may, therefore, be called an auxiliary of the subjunctive mood or a subjunctive equivalent or substitute. But such a sentence as Jtmay rainto-morrow cannot be replaced by one with rain in the subjunctive mood, and the verb may, although certainly modal as marking uncertainty, cannot be called an a u x i 1 i a r y of the subjunctive mood or a subjunctive equivalent or substitute. The auxiliaries of the subjunctive mood are may and shall, or if the time-sphere of the circumstances described is the past, might and should. As will appear from the following discussions, should is frequently, and might occasionally, employed also independently of the time-sphere. AH these forms considered by themselves are subjunctive or conditional forms. Besides the above verbs the imperative let is often employed as a substitute for the subjunctive in so-called hortative sentences. (6, a, 2.)

A verb-group that serves as a substitute for a subjunctive mood may be styled a periphrastic subjunctive, in contradistinction to which the subjunctive proper may be called the inflectional subjunctive. d) The attitude of the speaker may be one of rejection, i. e. he may wish it to be understood that he rejects the fulfilment of the action or state, either as being contrary to some known fact, or as being a mere supposition with regard to the future or present, made merely for the sake of argument. The predication expressing this attitude may be called predication of rejection and is symbolized by a form of the finite verb which in these pages is called the conditional (mood), or by the auxiliaries should, would and were (to).

In English, as well as in many other languages, the

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