of their analogy to certain subordinate statements or adverbial clauses. Illustration will be given below.
The Subjunctive and Conditional in Principal Sentences.
7. a) In optative senten ces the subjunctive is now chiefly met with in invocations and imprecations, the subject of the sentence being:
1) the name of the Deity, or of some being or personified abstraction to whom some supernatural power is ascribed.
1* God save the King! God bless you! God help me! God forbidl
God rest you, merry gentlemen! G. Eliot, Sil. Mam.,
Ch. X, 74.
** Heaven forbidl
Now Heaven send she may be too sullen to look round Sher., Riv., IV, 2, (260).
*** Lord send you may be the better for her protection in
such mattersl Scott, Abbot, Ch. XIX, 191.
Lord preserve usl Dick., Pickw., Ch. IX, 73.
••••Some god direct myjudgment! Shak., Me ren. of Ve n.,
II, 7, 13.
Fortune forbid my outside have not charm'd her Md, Twelfth N i g h t, II, 2, 15. N o t e especially the formulas of oaths, as in: I didn't know it, so help me —. Thack., P e n d., II, Ch. XXXVIII, 408.
But if I live, | So aid me Heaven when at mine uttermost, | As 1 will make hertruly mytruewife. Ten., Mar. of Ger.,502. ii * Devil take you I Dick., C h u z , Ch. L 1, 392a. Deuce take the man! ld., Cop., Ch. XXXV, 249. The devil take that cat! Graph., 1892, 797. Each for himself and the Devil take the hindmost! Proverb. ** Plague take them! Thack., Van. Fair, I, Introd.. Perdition seize him! Reade, It is never too late to m e n d, I, Ch. V, 54. N o t e. Sometimes the subject is understood. Thus in Bless you! Curse you! Confound you! Beshrew you ! etc. Give you good night! Shak, Haml., I, 1, 16.
2) the name of the person or thing on which a curse is invoked, the sentence being mostly passive.
I Grammar be hanged! Onions, A d v a n c e d Eng. S y n t., § 42. Cursed be the social wants that sin against the strength of youth! Ten., Locksley Hall, 59.