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back and / desire that she shall come back (= / desire that she come back), we find «) that shall is distinctiy weaker in the second sentence than it is in the first, and p) that it is not modal in the first sentence, whereas it may be understood as a subjunctive auxiliary in the second. Compare Ch. I, 40 of my Gram. of Lat e Mod. Eng. The weakened meaning of shall in subordinate statements may also be responsible for the fact that we often find it replaced by other auxiliary verbs, frequently for no apparent reason. See 21.

16. d) In Literary English the subjunctive is frequent in clauses

which express what is the subject of a h o p e or w i s h, especially after such phrases as God (or Heaven) grant or send, in which the verb is also in the subjunctive. Compare § 7, a.

God grant that some, less noble and less loyal, | Nearer In bloody thoughts, but not in blood, l Deserve not worse than wretched Clarence did! Shak, Rich. III, II, 1, 93.

Heaven send we be all alive this time to-morrow! Sher., Riv., IV, 1, (257).

God send I see the Lord High Admiral when I come home! Kingsley W e s t w. H o! Ch. I, 66.

God grant you become a braver man than he! ib, Ch. I, 76. b) There is no clear evidence that the preterite subjunctive takes the place of the present subjunctive in narrating past events, preterite forms giving the impression of being intended as conditionals, in other words they suggest idle wishes See 18. Thus the preterite forms in the following quotations are, most probably, to be apprehended as conditionals.

I thought upon Antonio when he told me, I And wished in silence that it were not his. Shak., Merch. of Ven, II, 7, 32. It was one of those glad times when we form, or ought to form, the wish that every one on earth were able to be happy. Dick, Chuz, Ch. XLVIII, 3696.

I expressed to Wordsworth a wish that his poems were printed in the order of their compositlon. A c a d e m y.

17. Obs. I. A common substitute for this inflectional subjunctive

is periphrasis with may, in narrating past events might. i. I wish the French levity of this young man may agree with

yOur father's Spanish gravity. Wycherley, The Gent.

Danc. Mast., I, 1, (139.)

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