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45

Bethink ere thou dismiss us. ib.

Ere you be old, learn to love and pray. Thack., Van. Fair, I, Ch. XIV, 140.

iv. Time goes on crutches till love have all his rites. Shak., Much ado, II, 1, 373.

By Heaven, I will not drink I Till my dear lord arise and bid me do it. Ten, Oer. and En, 664.

Meanwhile he will be watched, until he lose his present habits of stealing and lying. Besant, The Bell of St Paul's, I, 25.T.

v. When he please to make commotion, | 'Tis to be fear'd they all will follow him. Shak, H e n ry VI, B, III, 1, 29.

b) No conclusi ve evidence has come to hand of the preterite —subjunctive in adverbial clauses of time whose timesphere is the past.

Such a sentence as the following hardly affords a case in point, the relation of time being distinctly blended with that of condition or hypothesis, which occasions the use of the conditional; in other words whenever is equivalent to if at any time, and were corresponds to the Dutch mocht z ij n. Compare 39, a, 2 and 40, Obs. I.

He as readily engaged to fetch her away again at half-an-hour's notice, whenever she were weary of the place. JaneAusten, Mansf. Park, Ch. IV, 41.

There is, of course, no lack of instances of a preterite being used in these clauses when the action or state they describe belongs to the past time-sphere, but, as, except for the verb to be, there are no distinctive forms for the preterite subjunctive (2), these instances may also be apprehended as indicatives.

34. Obs. I, a) In temporal clauses describing an action or state of the future the inflectional subjunctive is not unfrequently replaced by periphrasis with shall, especially in literary language of a solemn cast, to represent the fulfilment of the action or state as uncertain or of uncertain date. The periphrastic subjunctive seems to occur particularly after until (or //'//) and when. Compare Murray, s. v. shall, 10, c i. I have undertaken the duty here until the living shall be filled up. Reade, It is never too late to mend, I, Ch. VI, 75.,T. Read just the verses I have marked, for these verses have dropped comfort on the poor, the aged and the distressed for more than eighteen hundred years and will till time shall be no more. ib, I, Ch. VI, 81.

Is she going to keep a lonely vigil till that time shall come? Miss Montgomery, T h r o w n T og e t h e r, I, 77.

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