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secondary dividing-points, the pluperfect or future perfect, respectively, takes the place of the present perfect.

i. * As soon as Mr. Carnaby opened his eyes, she (sc. Mrs. Carnaby) told him

of her plans, and before breakfast they had setfled the whole thing. Sweet, The Picnic.

ii. If the stroke serves to crumble up a further section of the German defences, its purpose will have been achieved. Westm. Gaz, No. 7571, 2b.

b) The observant student will have remarked that the pluperfect has two values, i. e. not only does it, on a change of dividingpoint, take the place of the perfect, but also of the preterite. Thus both / thank you that you have done all this for me and / thank you that you did all this for me become / thanked you that you had done all this for me.

c) The pluperfect, perfect and future perfect having certain features in common, it will sometimes be convenient to comprise them under the general denomination of the perfect tenses. When necessary the perfect proper will be called the present perfect.

11. It remains to make a few observations about the tenses used in indirect speech.

a) If we compare the preterite, perfect and pluperfect tenses of direct statements with those of the corrësponding indirect statements after a preterite, as in:

I met her some time ago. — He said that he had met her some time ago.

I have not yet met her. — He said that he had not yet met her.

I had already met her before. — He said that he had already met her before.

we find that there is no shifting of tense in the latter following that of the former, the pluperfect being used independently of the tense in the direct statement.

b) Nor is the difference between open and rejected condition shown by different forms in indirect statements depending on preterites, as becomes apparent form a comparison of the following sentences:

I w/7/ pay you if I can — He said that he would pay me if he could. I would pay you if I could — He said that he would pay me if he could.

c) When the reported statement is one that applies to all times, the present tense is mostly preserved after a preterite.

He denied that Electricity and Magnetism are (not were) the same agent. Bain, Comp, 203.

Such a man would not admit that two and two is four. ib.

I was thinking how terrible is war. Buchanan, That Winter Night,

Ch. I, 4.

But owing to the fact.that the shifting from the preterite in the reporting sentence to the present in the reported statement