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Hu mycel scealt bu minum hlaforde? Ags. Oosp, Luke, XVI, 5.')(=How much owest thou unto my lord?)

Chaucer has shall in thé same function and meaning in:

Freend, as I am trewe knight, | And by that feyth I shall to god and yow, | I hadde it never half so hote as now. t r o i 1. and c r e s, iii, 1649. This Troilus... | Is thurgh a goter, by a privé wente, | In-to my chaumbre come in al this reyn, | Unwist of every maner wight, certeyn, | Save of my-self, as wisly have I joye, | And by that feith I shall Pryam of Troye. ib, 791.

2) In combination with an infinitive it mostly expressed the same meaning as in Modern English is ordinarily denoted by ought or should. In the last-mentioned verb the original meaning of shall has, accordingly, been preserved. For illustration of this application in Middle English see also Ch. I, 44, Obs. V.

ba Iudeas him andswaredon and cwaTdon, Wë habbad x, and be ure £ hë sceal sweitan, for {jam be hê cwaed paet hê waere Godes Sunu. The Gospel of Sa i n t J o h n, XIX, 72). (Auth. verb: The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.) '

Sëo cyrice sceal fëdan da pe ast hire eardiap. B1 icki. Hom, XLI, 27 The church ought to feed those that dweil therein.) He us leerde, hu we us gebiddan sceoldon. ib, XIX, 36. (= He taught us how we ought to pray.)

Hwaet sculon we nu don to dam dael we maegon cumon to dam sopum gesaelbum ? B o e t h i u s (ed. Fox), cxxvi, 32. (= What ought we now to do, in order that we may come to the true goods?) Dama i us hwylcum deade we sweitan sceulon, for dam de we done Haslend to deade geseaiden. S t. Andrew, XXXVI, 16. (= Judge us, by what death we ought to die, because we gave up the Saviour to death.)

Also Chaucer, sometimes uses shall in the same function and meaning.

An housbond 'shal nat been inquisitif of goddes privetee, nor of his wyf. Cant. Ta les, A, 3163.

d) In Middlle English shall and will came to be used as tensesigns for a long time without the modern difference in their application, shall being the more frequent auxiliary. Thus in wycliffe'S translation of the Bible (± 1380), shall is regularly used where the Vulgate, from which it was made, has the future, will being employed to render the meaning of volo. See Molloy, The Irish Difficulty, Ch. VII; Stof, Taalstudie, II, 225.

Molloy, modernizing Wycliffe's spelling, quotes:

!) Murray, s. v. shall, I, 1.

2) edited by James Wilson Brioht in the The Belles-Lettres Series.