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68

to strike the attention of the observant student, is the frequent use of shall in the second, and especially the third person, to mark a plain future. As has already been observed (20, e), this use of shall is to be regarded as a survival of the ancient practice, which,' with some exceptions, employed shall in all persons to denote pure futurity.

She gives it out that you shall marry her. Shak, Oth, IV, 1, 115.

Our feast shall be much honoured in your presence. ld. Meren, of Ven,

HL 2, 214.

Of all days in the year, | Come Lammas-eve at night shall she be fourteen. id, Rom. and Jul, I, 3, 17.

"Shall she marry him?" — "No." — "How then? shall he marry her?" id, Two Gent, II, 5, 13.

Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shali I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me, shall slay me. B ib 1 e, Gen, IV, 14. (This is not the so-called prophetic shall, Cain in this passage expressing his fear that he will be killed by whosoever shall find him. Thus also in the following quotation.) Saui also sent messengers unto David's house, to watch him, and to slay film in the morning: and Michal, David's wife, told him, saying, If thou save not thy life to-night to-morrow thou shalt be slain id, Sam., A, XIX, 11.

Also should as an auxiliary of the conditional is often met with in connections where Present English would have would.

Thou shouldst have better pleased me with this deed, | Hadst thou descended from another house. Shak, As you like it, I, 2, 239. If he should offer to choose, and choose the right casket, you should refuse to perform your father's will, if you should refuse to accept him. id, Merch. of Ven., I, 2, 99.

I find thee apt; i And duller shouldst thou be than the fat weed | Thatroots itself in ease on Lethe wharf, | Wouldst thou not stir in this. id, H a ml,

1, 5, 32.

The following quotations illustrating a use of would in parallel cases are appended to exhibit the unsettled nature of Shakespeare's practice:

Had I but served my God with half the zeal | I served my king, He would not in mine age | Have left me naked to mine enemies. Henry VIII, III,

2, 456.

"A friendly eye could never see such faults." — "A flatterer's would not,though they do appear | As huge as high Olympus." Jul. Caes., IV, 3, 91.

Sometimes shall may have been intended as an auxiliary of a plain future, although to the present generation it would appear to be tinged with other notions, and accordingly, be replaced by other verbs, specially employed to express these notions, i. e. by:

modal to be, found in certain adverbial clauses in which the relation of condition is blended with a relation of purpose (Ch. I, 17).

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