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85

82. Apart from those cases in which a present indicative is substituted for a present subjunctive, the use of the present in describing what is yet to come is less common in English than in Dutch.

As will appear from the following illustrations, it is mostly a personal subject with which such a present is connected, and the probability is that in the majority of cases we have not to deal with mere futurity, but futurity blended with some other notion, mostly some form of volition, i. e. the force of an intention or arrangement existing at the moment of speaking. This view receives some support from the fact that the auxiliaries of the future tense can hardly be dispensed with when mere futurity is intended.

83. The use of the present for the future, mostly with the above connotation, is especially common with verbs which denote a moving to or from a place, i. e. the verbs to come and to leave and their synonyms; practically only when futurity apt pears from some adverbial adjunct or clause denoting or implying a future point of time.

i. Ask when the company arrivés at Naples. Edna Lyall, Knight Errant, Ch. IV, 37.

"When does he arrivé?" — "Next Tuesday... He leaves the same day, I'm thankful to say." Birminoham, The Advent, of Dr. Whitty, Ch. V, 108.

ii. The King comes here to night. Shak, Macb., I, V, 29.

Comes Caesar to the Capitol to-morrow? id, Jul. Caes, I, 3, 36.

iii. What time do you get back from the City to-morrow afternoon? Anstey, In brief Authority, Ch. II, 23.

iv. "Edward", said Miss Murdstone, "let there be an end of this. I go to-morrow." Dick, C o p, Ch. IV, 25b.

Does he r'eally go abroad next week ? Lytton, M y N o v e 1, I VII, Ch. XVI, 480.

I ask pardon for taking up your time so long. I go now. ib., I, VI, Ch. XVIII, 415.

I go to town to-morrow. Earle, P h i l.5, § 282.

Which ofyou goto London next Saturday? Onions, Adv. Eng. Synt, § 126.

v. I leave this place, in the fear lest my enemies discover me... But I should like none to know where we go. Lytton, My No vel, II, VIII, Ch. XII, 64. The train leaves in five-and-twenty minutes. Gissing, A Life's Morning, Ch. XV, 223.

vi. To-night we meet again. Lytton, Pomp., III, Ch. X, 866.

vü. I do not move from this room untii from Henric's own lips I hear that he

is your husband. Dor. Gerard. Exotic Martha, Ch. VIII, 101. viii. Mrs. Todgers, this day week we part, in consequence of the cheese. Dick, Chuz, Ch. IX, 69a.

ix. We sail to-morrow. Stevenson, Treas. Island.

x. He starts for the Continent to-night. Sweet, N. E. Gr, § 2231.

We start next Monday for (he Continent. Mason, Eng. Gram.34, 117. We all start in the morning for Paris. Onions, Advanced Eng. Synt., § 126.

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