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quotations. But when the reference is, or may be, to a succession of like acts, i. e. when the predicate is iterative or may be understood to be iterative, there is often no certainty in which meaning since is to be apprehended.

Blood hath been shed ere now, i' the olden time, | Ere humane statute

purged the gentle weal; I Ay, and since too, murders have been perform'd |

Too terrible for the ear. Shak., M a c b., III, 4, 77.

He has never been heard of since. Scott, K e n i 1 w., Ch. II.

They made that well-known journey which almost every Englishman of

middle rank has travelled since. Thack, Van. Fair, I, Ch. XXVIII, 296.

I have often wondered since why all cannot read the same Iesson, as I did

in those old Hebrew Scriptures. Kinosley, Alton Locke, Ch. 1, 10.

Its recommendations (sc. of Lord Durham's report) were in full operation

in Canada within two or three years, and have been since extended to

nearly all the other colonies of European race. McCarthy, Hist. ofour

own Times, I, Ch. III, 54.

I finished the poem about the angel quarter of an hour ago. fve read you several things since. Shaw, Candida, III, (171). T. Scarcely a Parliamentary day has passed since that has not witnessed the crushing of some part of the Government programme. Westm. Gaz., No. 8263, la.

The predicate is sometimes placed in the preterite, especially when modified by (n)ever.

"Where is he?" — "I did not see him since." Shak., Ant. and Cleop., I, 3, /.

So hand in hand they passed, the loveliest pair | That ever since in love's embraces met. Milton, Par. Lost, IV, 322. (Observe that ever is a sentence-modifier, not a word-modifier as in the quotations cited in 127; since could be separated from ever and placed at the end of the sentence. Observe also the incluslve superlative) (Ch. XXX, 47.) They never thought ofitsince. Marryat, Children of the New Forest, 353. T.

The use of the present as in the following quotation appears to be extremely rare:

I am since informed that swearing is perfectly unfashionable. Goldsmith, Vic, Ch. IX, (285).

There is, however, nothing unusual in the use of to be dead instead of to have died.

Sir Wigram Allen, I regret to see, is since dead. Froude, Oceana, Ch. XI, 177.

II. Since frequently occurs as a variant of ago. Predicates modified by adverbial adjuncts containing since in this meaning are, naturally, placed in the preterite in the majority of cases. But instances of the predicate standing in the perfect in the first application (8) are by no means uncommon. For illustration see also 94, b and 100.

i. Ha broke his vows long since. Westm. Gaz, No. 5335, 9a.

ii. He has been executed an hour since. Scott, Talisman, 278.

129. Also when the adverbial adjunct modifying the predicate is one containing the preposition since, the ordinary tense is