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which Holland has the right to exercise on the Scheldt for the purpose of collecting her customs duties and enforcing her sanitary regulations, has been reduced to a minimum. Antwerp shipping has been entirely withdrawn from Dutch control. Contrary to the provisions of the Final Act of Vienna the care of the river itself has not been entrusted to each state on its own territory, but the state of the channel, the buoyage and lighting of the Dutch part have been entrusted to the joint care of a mixed Dutch-Belgian committee. Belgium has been granted the right of keeping on the Scheldt a pilot service which, together with the Dutch service, is under the control of the mixed committee. The moderate pilot charges have been fixed by mutual arrangement and are the same for all nations.

As to the right of fishing, it must be observed that the principles of international law reserve the right of fishing on any territory to the inhabitants of the country to which it belongs. Yet Belgium has obtained the right to fish and to deal in fish on the Dutch Scheldt on an equal footing with the Dutch.

Tolls no longer exist. Though the Treaty of 1839 had allowed their levying they were abolished by the International Convention of 1863 when the Dutch rights were bought off for what was in comparison a small sum.

It is therefore quite untrue to say that Holland can still check or systematically injure Belgian commercial shipping on the Scheldt.

On the contrary Dutch sovereignty on the Scheldt has already been submitted to regulations that narrow its application very considerably. This, however, must not be understood to imply, that the stipulation of the convention of 1839 does leave room for supposing the sovereignty over the Scheldt to have become in any way a joint sovereignty. Such a "condominium" was not granted to Belgium. Whilst subject to special conditions, the undivided sovereignty was left to Holland alone.

The few publicists who believe that they may infer from its present legal status the existence of a condominium on the Dutch Scheldt, would certainly not be