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waterway. Holland was in this respect completely at Belgium's mercy.

Already during the revolutionary years from 1830 to 1839 Belgium made use of the Meuse at Hocht as a source of the water-supply for her canals, to wit the canal Liége-Maestricht and for the irrigation of the Campine. This has caused disaster to the navigability of the Meuse below Maestricht. A series of vast works were undertaken by the Belgian government in 1847, 1849 and 1855, which withdraw water from the Limburg Meuse in summer time, precisely when its level is lowest, just when the water is needed most but is least in evidence. The works near Liége have diminished the volume of water on the lower Meuse. Since 1855 the Meuse has ceased to be navigable for a great part of the year, a fact from which all Limburg has greatly suffered. The owners of regular steamship services at Maestricht have been forced to withdraw their steamers from the river. Exportation became a matter of dimculty and the rural population awaited in vain their winter provisions. Moreover the withdrawal of water from the Meuse caused a very strong current in the canal from Maestricht to Bois-leDuc, the Zuid-Willemsvaart, and considerably reduced its capacity. Thus Limburg quickly became a blank spot on the map of Holland's economic activities, and this in consequence of Belgian measures, which moreover were not based on any right whatever. The withdrawal of the water was contrary to the principles established by the Congress of Vienna and to the stipulations of the Dutch-Belgian treaties of 1839 and 1843. This intolerable state of affairs was at last regulated by the treaty of 1863. But on this occasion Holland was forced to grant to Belgium new concessions which have ever since been a source of complaint to the persons in South Limburg whose interests are involved. The quantity of water which Belgium was allowed to withdraw from the Meuse was increased rather than diminished. A subsequent revision in 1873