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The history of Dutch Universities does not go back to the Middle Ages. Universities here were the outcome of the struggle for independence in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Many features of their constitution are explained by their having been expressly founded by the several provinces or by some of the towns, to be bulwarks of learning, at first principally theological learning. Three of the old provincial Universities were adopted by the State in 1815, viz, Leiden, Utrecht, Groningen, others being abolished or reduced. The Athenaeutnillustre of Amsterdam was raised to the rank of a University in 1876, remaining a municipal institution. Up to the present the only University founded by a private Corporation is the Free University at Amsterdam, being at the same time the only University on a denominational basis. Preparations for founding a Roman Catholic University are in an advanced stage. In 1905 the right to give degrees cum effectu civili was extended to Universities besides those of the State and the town of Amsterdam. Provision for technical education dates from the nineteenth century. The institutes providing for it are called >Hoogescholent-, literally High Schools, which term, however, does not correspond to the English use of it. It was formerly used as the Dutch word for University, and, since all of .them have now been placed on an equal footing with the Universities proper, »Hoogeschooh will be rendered throughout these pages by University. The Technical University at Delft is maintained and regulated by theState. It was raised to the rankof a University in 1905, and corresponds to the Universities proper