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in all matters of constitution, administration and rights. The same measure was extended in 1918 to the VeterinAry University at Utrecht, and the Agricultural university at WageningEN, both maintained and regulated by the State. A commercial university was founded at Rotterdam in 1913, by a private Corporation, called Dutch Society] for Commercial Higher Education (Nederlandsche Vereeniging voor Hooger Handelsonderwijs).

A Technical UniversityatBANDOENG, Java, was founded in 1920 by the Roydl Institute for Technical Higher Education in the Dutch Indies. It is to be endowed with the same rights as the Technical University at Delft.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Each University is governed by a board of Curators, forming an intermediate organism between the Government, the municipality or the private Corporation, and the University. All appointments and appropriations are proposed to the Governing authorities by the Curators, at the request or on the advice of the Universities, which accordingly have neither means nor executive powers of their own. Internal matters are regulated by the Academical senates, consistingoftheentire body of professors, and presided over for annual terms by one of them, called Rector magnificus. Owing to their relatively modern origin, the Dutch Universities have never possessed the College system. The teaching staffs are quite adequate, though in some respects not so extensive as in some other countries, since the system of private lecturers, though recognized, is not very much developed.

Besides ordinary professors, the teaching staff includes

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