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r I HE institution of Holland's Annual Industries Fair finds its origin in the sturing times of the unforgettable World War. Under the stress of these circumstances a robust uplifting energy, coupled with a fortified feeling of natioaal unity, drove Holland's Industry and Commerce to seek new paths and means; and in May 1916 the plan was conceived of holding Fairs in Holland to advance the interests of home industry and commerce. With the co-operation of the Government, and financial help from private sources — Railway Companies, Steamship Co's, Banks, etc. — plans were prepared that self-same summer for holding Holland's First Annual Industries Fair. IJ In the beginning it seemed difficult to convince the Industry of Holland of the advantages of an Industries Fair. It is true that in former times Annual Markets in Holland were of great significance but, after the discovery of steam and electricity, the character of industry — formerly exclusively handwork — as well as that of commercial barter became completely changed and the Annual Market gradually disappeared or became merely local markets. The closing of the frontiers, the difficulties of transport, the scarcity of raw materials and the coal-famine experienced shortly after the outbreak of the war, made it extremely difficult for our manufacturers to keep things going; but the ill luck and the dangers which Industry in Holland underwent were, at the same time, a strong incitement to engage in the struggle

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