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French and Dutch (Flemish) are the two official languages.

Whereas Walloon has almost disappeared as a literary language, Flemish has never ceased to exist and to develop in that sense.

In the United Kingdom we find, as far as England, Scotland and Wales are concemed, a common language and a common religion. Only Ireland, partly, belongs to the Roman Catholic faith, and its peasant population still speaks its ancient language. And yet, Scotch, Welsh, and English each look upon their own race as quite distinct from the others, as much as the Irish do.

In the United States of North America we find a common language, English, and a common religion, but the greatest possible diversity of race. Yet there is not a single American citizen who is not proud of being one. The war has indeed proved that many German-Americans still feel much for their old country; but the overwhelming majority are American citizens first and Germanophiles only in the second place.

Different from all these are the Jews. They are not in possession of any particular land, they have no common material interests. Owing to theirhaving lived in different countries for centuries,they show,evenethnographically, very marked differences. But they have a common religion and a common language and origin, and they constitute indeed the Jewish nation. They have done so for thousands of years, and no vi-

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