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cissitude has shaken their feeling of belonging to a common nationality.

The conviction that all the Jews in the world form a nation is equally strongly feit by the Jews themselves as by outsiders and the fact is so positive that we may consider it as of very great importance.

From it we may safely conclude, that, primarily, "material" interests have very little to do with nationality. Religion, when not a universal religion, but retained by one particular race as its own, as is the case with Israelites, is a very strong tie, and so is language. These two bring individuals together more than anything else, and hence nationalities may consist of more than one race, as long as they have religion or language in common.

Now the conception of a State, as we have seen in the case of Belgium, Great Britain and the U. S. A., and as we may observe with equal conclusions in the cases of Russia, Austria-Hungary, Persia, China and many other countries, does not by any means coincide with that of a nation.

In Russia, Germany and Austria, for instance, separate nationalities like the Finns and the Poles look upon the State as their enemy and oppressor. If the Poles were possessed of certain qualities which together make politically creative force, they would, if the present war afforded them a chance, make their nation into a State, in the same way as the Bulgarians, Servians, Roumanians