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and other nations did who were previously oppressed by the Turks.

What is a State ? It is almost as difficult to define the notion of a State as of a Nation.

In neither case can it be said that numbers form the chief attribute. The Russians number almost twenty times as much as the Belgians or the Roumanians. Londen is a town or city but it has more inhabitants than Holland and twice as many inhabitants as Denmark, and more than the whole of Scandinavia. Yet Holland has large colonial possessions, and Scandinavia like Holland, has developed its own art and literature. Again, Paris, holding not a twentieth part of the population of France, has always played the chief role in French History. Carthage, Venice, Genua, Amsterdam were cities with no more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants. Yet their embassadors were as proud as Spanish Grandees, and they would wage war with the mightiest lands.

It is curious, at the same time, that the farther we go back in history, the more we find small States or indeed mere cities, playing an international role which their size as compared to that of their neighbours seems to forbid. The fact is, of course, that,e. g. in the Middle Ages, and up to the Napoleonic wars, fighting was done chiefly by hirelings, who had made war their m├ętier. Credit was much less developed than it is today, and he who had the most ready cash could obtain the most soldiers.