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as their hereditary namesakes in monarchical States have done before them. And the result will be more Belgiums ruined, more Polands devastated, more Boer States deprived of the immaterial treasure which they hold most sacred: independance, and of course more fruitless indignations, and more pecksniffian crocodile tears. But, as we have tried to point out, the devastations will be greater as science advances, the slaugther will be on a much more gigantic scale. Only the crocodile tears will flow at much the same rate. But the final result is bound to be the total collapse of European society.

Again, we must not deceive ourselves by optimistic dreams in regard to any supposed inherently peaceful disposition of democracies.

Whilst Mazzini held, that they mean progress under the best and wisest, Talleyrand, with withering contempt, called them aristocracies of roughs. Neither can it be denied, that, in the past, democracies, such as Athens, Rome, Carthage, have been bellicose and aggressive to a degree, and that in modern times France, in Robespierre's days, was more aggressive than even Louis XIV himself. In recent times, the war between Spain and the United States proved the democracy to be far from peaceful and meek, and the South-American republics seem almost to thrive on continuous quarrels.

Aggressive patriotism, therefore, is not limited to monarchie states only. King Demos may provoke war