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character of the interchange of commodities changed from barter to trade. In the days of barter cunning was not necessary. A man could see precisely what he gave and what he got .But the invention of money complicated matters. You conld only compare the value of commodities via money. As thevalue of money was much more stable than the value of commodities, money was wanted above all. It became necessary to have as much money and as few commodities as possible. When silver and gold were used as moneystandards these developments accentuated themselves. Money became international. Although silver and gold are, in reality, commodities, they are the only commodities which even ultra-protectionist States admit free of duty. — It is the aim of every State to obtain money, above all other things. It follows that every State wishes to sell as much goods as possible and to buy as little as possible. Now, although individual traders wish the same, they behave differently. For they, also, wish to sell as much goods as possible, as they want money. Only, they do not care whether they get the money from their compatriots or from aliens beyond the frontier .It is a matter of complete indifference to them. Individual buyers, who buy goods only for personal use, are equally indifferent. They do not care whether the goods they buy, are made in their own land, whether they give their money to their compatriots or to aliens beyond the frontier as long as they think they get good value for