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their money. Evidently the interests of individuals are not those of agglomerates of individuals, called States. Therefore the State uses force. It compels its subjects to buy home-made goods, in making imported goods higher in price by levying duties. The interests of individuals, therefore, are international, the interests of the State are exclusively national. If, however, the State were to compel its citizens to divide their propertyequallyamongstthemselves, and to share profits equally, individual and State interets would be identical. But as equal division of money and property is impracticable, the two interests remain in opposition. This is one reason why the German idea of making everybody and everything subservient to the State, is a fallacy.

States which levy protective duties often succeed in fostering their home industries. This is proved by the prosperity of ultra-protectionist countries like Germany and the United States.

As the economical interests of States are exclusively national, whereas those of individuals are international, States behave in an ultra-patriotic manner. In order to obtain more duty, they want more markets, which they intend to surround by tariff-walls. They can only obtain such markets by conquest. They can make conquests only by military power, and in beha ving themselves exactly like natural phenomena, with their complete disregard of all morality, as we have endeavoured to explain in the previous chapters.