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Although the economie factor is not the only one responsible for international conflict, and although national vanity, ambition and Byzantinism, as we have seen, cannot be ignored, there is no doubt that it acts as a support to the others and as a bait, held out by the ruling caste to the ignorant mob.

If a system of international Freetrade could be thought out, we would at least have succeeded in freeing national aspirations from their materialistic, most egoistic and most ignoble propensities, and it is these which are so strongly feit by those who proclaim Freetrade as the great Peacemaker.

Now, when States can dispense with their enormous expenditure on armaments, they will have gigantic amounts at their disposal. These can be used, when Freetrade prevails, towards indemnifying those manufacturers whose business would suffer or become impossible, having been carried on hitherto solely or

chiefly owingtothebenefitconferredonthembyprotec-

tive tariffs. We need not here expatiate on all the merits of Free-Trade as against protection, from atheoretical point of view. Let us rather take a concrete case.

In 1902 (according to Mr. Geoffry Drage in his work Russian Affairs", Londen 1904) Russia's imports and exports were as follows:

Raw and half

Foodstufis manufactured Animals Manu^actured T t , Goods articles

Imports£ 8,649,706 £31,395,069 £ 149,068 £ 15,810,000 £ 56,003,843 Jixports,, 55,906,519 „27,439,807 „ 2,292,662 2,046,693 „ 87,685,618