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Although Russia has adopted ultra-protectionism (the average ad valorem duty for British goods import ed into Russia, e. g. is about 130%) she only exports for £ 2.046.693 of manufactured articles, but she is still obliged to import them to the value of about £15.810.000.—Although theexcessive duty has enormously stimulated industry, and Russia now employs over 11.000.000 industrial male and female labourers, whilst over 93,000.000 persons of both sexes are employed in rural economy. *) all these people have to pay about twice as much, (and even more) for articles of clothing and other daily necessities (except corn and dairy produce) than their colleagues in freetrade countries like England and Holland. And, far from being better off than e. g. the labourers of the latter State, which is one of the smallest and least influential in the world, they are a great deal poorer and infinitely more miserable. Itisa well knownfact, that in Russia, which is the granary of Europe, and which exports for over £ 5°-000-000 worth of foodstuffs annually, there are many districts where famine and diseases resulting from it, are permanent. We need but consult any author who is conversant with Russia's economical and financial position to know that in this unfortunate Empire the agriculturists are forced to sell their grain in order to pay their very high taxes, the State still keeping to the

*) G. Alexinsky-Modern Russia 1914-