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It was their fault and their misfortune, that the Reformation plunged their country in endless wars and thereby put Germany back two centuries behind her western neighbours. The German psyche which in a previous chapter we have endeavoured to define as badly balanced between the extremes of command and obedience, is still the same as it ever has been, otherwise they would not accept the farces of a powerless Reichstag and of a feudal Landtag, as if these were equivalents of representative institutions in other constitutional countries. Even in our time, Union could only be brought about by brute force, and it was Prussia which forced Bavaria, Saxony.Hanover and all the rest of them to recognize the Hohenzollerns as Emperors, much against their own wish. And if the present war results in an fearful national disaster, the Germans themselves, and their naïve addiction to being hoodwinked by phrases will have to bear the blame. Europe has not been partly ruined and devastated, not to feel convinced that it cannot again place huge powers into the hands of a race which only knows how to abuse them.

Hence,if even after the great national disaster which appears unavoidable, the Germans do not of their own accord return to decentralisation, for instance, by offering the imperial crown to some popular Prince as the hereditary but strictly constitutional head of a federation of constitutional kingdoms, they will have to be forced to it. Each German kingdom will have to