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to think out a Moral Code for himself, it is utterly unthinkable that agglomerates of individuals, called States, could ignore that Code, without compassing their own destruction.

We are, indeed, witnessing the commencement of Europe's self-destruction, which Germany has started by invading her neighbours and by destroying some parts of Europe. It is useless to close our eyes to it. The work of the destruction of European civilisation has begun. And here we have the result of the exercise of that liberty of action, of that State-sovereignty, which is claimed as the essential attribute of the State.

Evidently, then, that sovereignty is highly undesirable, if European civilisation is to be saved at all.

Unfortunately war is viewed differently by the different nations of the world. Germany and Austria proclaim war as a thing to be desired. The Balkan races appear to thrive on mutual slaughter. The Turks have scarcely ever done anything well except fighting. But the Anglo-Saxons of Great Britain and of her Sister-States in America and elsewhere never cease proclaiming tjheir utmost abhorrence of war, which they call dirty work. France and Russia probably hold the same view. At all events they do not, in their literature, possess any proof to the contrary. In this they differ from the Teutons, whose literature abounds in panegyrics of warlike actions and bloody deeds. The Governments of France and Russia have proclaimed their love of peace on all possible oc-

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