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the iöth century to excape murder, as their descendants did in 1914. Fair Flanders groaned under the load of war, as it does today. Then, as now, with the freedom of the Netherlands Britain's liberty stood or feil. Queen Elisabeth knew, and Engeland knew. Philip swore that he would have her blood. Sixtus V excommunicated the Queen, and had de declaration read in the famous Antwerp cathedral. „Words, words words" said Parma, who made a great show of peacenegotiations. „Parma therewith sent many English asleep, and also some pacifists in the Netherlands, not thinking of peace in the least, but only of how to conquer England," says an historian of those daysx). But the Queen was warned in time. So were the Estates at the Hague and the Stadholder. The Armada was destroyed, partly by Anglo-Dutch co-operation, and partly by the storms which drove it ashore on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. The Tirpitz of 1588 had done his worst, and failed. Europe could breathe again.

In the I7th Century England and Holland fought, what in England are called „The Dutch wars," and what we in Holland call „The English wars." They were fair fights, between opponents of about equal strength, and both retired from them with honour. There was comparatively little resentment over them,

*) „Parma wieghde eensdeels veel Engelsche in slape, ende oock eenighe pays-wenschers in de Nederlanden, nerghens minder dan op vrede te maken denckende, maergheheelomEngelantteconquesteeren".