straits an illustrious scholar is led, because he incautiously lias adopted a cause vvhich admits of no defence.
1 leave the reader to examine the objections of Lassen against Albïrïinï,1 vvho is another witness for Vikramaditya (^akari living 78 A. D. and call up another witness in the person of Hiuen-Thsang. This Chinese travelier informs us, that the powerful Vikramaditya, king of (^ravasti, lived in the «middle of the thousand years» elapsed since the Nirvana ofBuddha. 2 Although Stan. Julien cautiously adds in a foot-note, that Hiuen-Thsang's expression may mean, in one of the thousand years elapsed since the Nirvana, it is obvious, that such a vague signification is utterly incompatible vvith the object of any one who intends to give a date, and Stan. Julien himself takes it in the sense of 500 years, and so does Reinaud. 3 As the Nirvana, according to Hiuen-Thsang, took place 100 years before Agoka, and Agoka began to reign 263 B. C., and as Hiuen-Thsang is speaking about 640 A. D., there had just elapsed 1000 years between the Nirvana and Hiuen-Thsang, and the expression is quite proper. According to his chronology then, the Nirvana took place about 363 B. C.; 500 years later brings us to 137 A. D., only twenty years later than the date of Matj-gupta, the contemporary of Vikramaditya (^akari according to Kalhana-Pandita. The date, assigned by Hiuen-Thsang and the Northern Buddhists generally, I know, has not found favour, and the chronology of the Ceylonese Buddhists has been preferred to it. The Ceylonese annals ought to bear an unusual stamp of trustworthiness, since the)- are extolled at the expense, not only of the Northern Buddhistical writings, but also of the Brahmanical records, which, although silent on Buddha's date, agree in other respects with the Northern Buddhists' works. So, for example, neither the Brahmans, nor the Northern Buddhists, know anything about a Kala^oka, who is said by the Ceylonese to have lived one hundred years after the Nirvana, and under whom a second convocation was held, a convocation the Northern Buddhists know nothing about. Again, the lists of Indian Kings, said to have reigned before Buddha, coincide pretty well in the writings of Brahmanic and of Northern Buddhistic origin, but vary greatly with the succession, as given in the Mahavanso. Let us see, whether the Mahavanso really deserves so much credit as has been given to it. We read on p. 42 (Turnour's translation): «In the seventeenth year of the reign of this king (Agoka), this all-perfect minister of religion (Tisso Moggaliputto), aged seventy-tvvo years, conducted in the utmost perfection this great convoca-
1 Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. II. p. 761.
2 Stanislas Julien, Mémoires sur les eontrées oecidentales, Vol. I (1857), p. 115.
3 Mémoire sur 1'Iude, p. 80.