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makes part of the Jyotirvidabharana; he argues that such a book has no authority, and adds that, barring this single passage, nobody has seen the «authorities» spoken of, but never seen by Prof. Wilson. This statement of Hall's, if it were true in every respect and did not need some qualification, wou ld render the so-called tradition next to worthless. But Hall has overlooked an important fact, to be mentioned afterwards, so that his assertion is only partially true. True it is that the stanza in which the names of the ttine gems individually occur has, as yet, only been found in the Pseudo-Kalidasa. Happily this forger had too little skill to conceal that the stanza, as it stands in the Jyotirvidabharana, is singularly out of place, and I wonder that any one who reads the passage is not startled by the intrusion of the stanza. Out of the nine gems six are given in the verses immediately before; this might be explained. One ma)- give the names of all the poets, and afterwards repeat the name of a picked number out of them, adding that, amongst all, such and such are the chief ones. But then all the names of the rank and file would be given, and nobody would in the list of the whole leave out some of the first rank, at the same time that others of the first rank are duly registered. One sees how the Pseudo-Kalidasa is struggling to bring in the stanza, and he succeeds at last, but only by violence. The reason why he takes so much pains to intrude the stanza is, I should say, this: wishing to give to his forgery the semblance of antiquity, and knowing or supposing, that the stanza was current in the mouth of the pandits, but not found in writings, he practised the trick of inserting it in the bulk of his work. Such a trick would not be a stroke of genius, but it was sufficiënt for the purpose of imposing upon those for whom he intended it. 1 One thing is certain, the stanza is in the mouth of ever)' pandit, and wasso half acentury ago. Now if we consider that pandits very seldom read books on astrology, much less derive their knowledge of topics wholly unconnected with astrology from astrological books, if we farther bear in mind that the Jyotirvidabharana is of recent composition, it is next to impossible to account for the popularity of the memorial verse. And apart from this, the notice we have of the existence of the nine gems at the court of Vikramaditya is not derived from oral tradition or the Jyotirvidabharana, as Hall supposed. In the inscription of Buddha Gaya, a translation of which is given by Wilkins (As. Res. Vol. I. p. 286), we find the following: «Vikramaditya was certainly a king renowned in the world. So in his court were nine learned men, celebrated tinder the epithet of the Nava-ratnani or nine jewels; one of whom was Amara-Deva, who was the king's counsellor, a man of great

1 Tlie Pseudo-Kalidasa lias even found a commentator, unless the commentary be fabricated by himself, which would be anotlier trick quite wortliy of the first.

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