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Utpala, leave not the slightest doubt about the nature of the work, and show that it was, like other Karanas, a book with a regular text, in his favourite Arya metre. 1 The tables Albïrünï mentions may have formed an appendix to the work, but were certainly not the whole work. There is nothing in this to surprise us. Highly valuable as Albïrunï's information about Indian astronomy is, so far as actual knowledge of texts is concerned, we know now a great deal more of them than he did; there were only a few books he had read himself, because, as he says himself, he could not get them; in most cases his knowledge is derived from the Hindu astronomers of his own days. The wonder is, that he, a hated Musuiman, did get so much reliable information, greatly to the credit of his zeal and sagacit). — The contents of a Karana, essentially the same as those of a Siddhanta, are given Bfh. Samh. p. 4. — Of the date of the Pancasiddhantika, according to Albïrünï 505 A. D., we have had occasion to speak before.

After having completed his astronomical treatise, Varaha-mihira composed works on the second branch of a Jyotih^astra. This part, called b\ him in a loose way Hora and Casting of the horoscope, contains three subdivisions: the first on nativity, named Jataka or Janma; the second on prognostics for journeys, and especially for the march of princes in war, under the title of Yatra or Yatrika; the third contains horoscopy for weddings, as its name Vivahah, «nuptials», or Vivahapatala 2 shows. Here again Hora is sometimes synonymous with Jataka, whereas at other times it is the general name for all kinds of horoscopy. The works of our author on horoscop) are in a doublé form. Besides the Bt-haj-Jataka, theBrhad-YatraandtheBrhadVivahapatala, there is, in an abridged form, a Laghu- or Svalpa-Jataka, a Svalpa-Yatra and a Svalpa-Vivahapatala. The works written before the Brhat-Samhita (see Brh. Samh. Ch. I. vs. 10) are the larger ones, as may be inferred from the word vistaratah, «copiously», and Utpala says the same, whether he inferred it, as we ourselves can do, or knew it otherwise.

The Bi-haj-Jataka is among all the productions of our author the most generally known and studied in India. There exist three editions of it, I

i Cf. Colebrooke, Algebra, p. XLVII. and note. In passing, it may be remarked that the Arya metre seems to have been in general favour in the days of our author; Kalidasa uses it more frequently than any other dramatist, so far as I know; Aryabhata handled the metre with great felicity. The Anusfcubh on the contrary appears to have been used much more sparingly. If this generalization seems too sweeping and the facts not fully established, it may be excused as a guess; it can do no harm to draw the attention to a peculiarity in some authors whom there is every reason to believe to have

been contemporaneous. _ . .

> I cannot say with certainty what the word pafcala means in this combination; I think «section», viz. on weddings. Another name is Vivahakala, uthe time (lucky or illfated) for weddings».