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tronomer, he being the fountain head of the science. That the name of Paragara has become in Sanskrit literature prominent above other Rsi astronomers is due to his being a proclaimer of Puranas. The frequency of his name in the wntings of scholars who have occupied themselves with Hindu astronomy is due to Utpala. The latter in commenting upon the passage Bfh. Samh. III. 1, where Varaha-mihira compares the ancient and actual position of the solstices, quotes some lines from Paragara; he might have quoted many others, especiall)- the Veda calendar, but one was sufficiënt. Varaha-mihira himself had, of course, not only Paragara in view, for he says «pu rvagastresu», in ancient works. The work that professes to contain Paragara's teachings, is generally called Paragara-tantra. It was certainly held in high esteem, and Varaha-mihira borrows largely from it, although far less than from Garga, who is the great authority.1 I have not been so fortunate as to see the Paragara-tantra, nor have I heard from anybody else that he knew it. To judge from very numerous quotations, the greater part, at least a large part, of it is written in prose, a striking peculiarity amongst the works of its class. A pretty large part is in Anustubh, and it contains also Aryas. Interesting for the geography of India is an entire chapter which Varaha-mihira, only changing the form, but leaving the matter almost intact, has given in the 14th.Ch. oftheBrh.-Samhita; therefore we have to consider that chapter as really «presenting the geographv o the Paragara-tantra or perhaps j et more ancient works, and not as the actual map of India in Varaha-mihira's time. As the Yavanas or Greeks2 are placed by Paragara in Western India, in S. W. direction from Madhyadega, we are able to draw a certain limit, but an ill-defined one. From the occurrence of the Arya-metre, I suspect that it is of later origin than the Gargï-Samhita, to which we shall now turn our attention.

BrhÏfth,3 uTA " the,Brh' 8an,h- fifteei1 times aSainst Pala*ara five times; in the Bib. Jat. the latter is named twice, the former not at all. Utpala on Brli. J. VII 9 savs

that he never had seen a ParaPara-Hora, and only knew from actual inspeetion'a Para-

?ariya Samhita (» e. the Para9aratantra), but that he was told the work of Paraeara

existed in tliree branches (skandhas). I have seen a Pararara-Hora; it is one of the

mnumerable astrological fabrications. ' 01 tno

2 That the Yavanas originally denoted the Greeks and only the Greeks will a„t>ear from the sequel. To assert that Yavanas (in ancient times) may denotf any kTnd of p ple under the sun is so wonderful an assertion that one ought to have some reasons

nórTad ^ the Qame °f IonianS to natio"s who « ore no Ionians

of the fslam M hm °°T°" l0nianS' " iS n0t 80 8trange that a«er the conquests of the Islam, Mohammedans were called Yavanas. The Yavanas were the foremost the

"u i ° th® M'ecchf' so tbat Yavana and Mleccha became synonymous. When

eauentlvY aDS V " ^ St6PS °f'the Gre°kS'th<!y beCame the «hief Mlecchas, consequently Yavanas. Yavana, however, never denotes an Arab as sueh, neither formerly

the Grèlks 'S n6V0r a "ame ^ a "ati0n- The °nly nation calIed Yavanas, were