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brother Vijaya» as governor or successor. The name, but nothing more of (^aligüka is known from other sources, where he is the fourth in succession from A^oka. That the same is meant here, seems to be countenanced by the next glokas:

Tatah Saketam akramya Pancalan Mathuram tatha |

Yavana dustavikrantah prapsyanti Kusumadhvajam ||

tatah Puspapure prapte Kardame (?) prathite hite(?) |

akula visayah sarve bhavisyanti na samgayah ||

«Then the viciously valiant Greeks, after reducing Saketa, Pancala-country and Mathura, will reach (or take) Kusumadhvaja (Palibothra); Puspapura (Palibothra) being reached (or taken) all provinces will be in disorder, undoubtedly.»

So then we see, in a Sanskrit work, the confirmation of the records of the Greek historians, that the Bactrian kings led their victorious armies far into the heart of Hindustan. If the account of Garga is true, the extent of the Greek conquests is considerably greater than Greek historians teil us. For they made themselves at least masters of Saketa, and this can scarcely be any other city but Ayodhya, agreeably to general opinion, indeed, but doubted now and then. 1 Another Hindu witness for Saketa being, at least, besieged by the Greeks, is Patanjali in a passage, which Prof. Th. Goldstücker has made known, and most ingeniously applied to fix the date of the Mahabhasya.2 The words Kardame, &c., look as if they cotitain the name of the Greek King, and it is most tantalizing that they are so badly preserved.

The next following is a complaint against the heretics (pasandas), described as cïrava 1 ka 1 asam vl ta jatavalkaladharinah | bhiksuka vrsala loke bhavisyanti, from which it is clear that the Buddhist monks are intended. After some more complaints in the same style, it proceeds: Madhyadege na sthasyanti Yavana yuddhadurmadah ||

tesam anyonyasambhava(?) bhavisyanti na samgayah | atmacakrotthitam ghoram yuddham paramadarunam ||

tato yugavagat tesam Yavananam pariksaye |

samkete(?) sapta rajano bhavisyanti mahabalah ||

1 In tho Brh. Samh. Ch. XIV, Saketa is most eertainly Ayodhya or rather the kingdom.

5 See his «Panini», p. 280. The Madhyaraikas, who are said by Patanjali to have been besieged by the Greeks, are a peoplc of Madhyade^a, and can have nothing to do witli tho horaonymous Buddhist soetarians. They are enumerated as a pcople in Madhyadeca in Brh. Samh. Ch. XIV. 2. In the Mahabharata we find the Madhyamakeyas (preferable v. r. Madhyamakeyas), see M. Bh. II. Ch. 32, vs. 8. Here they are placed N. W. from Indraprastha, and must have boen the neighbours of the Trigartas. The Buddhistic seet, called Madhyamikas, may have derived their name from the country.

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