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Rsiputra seems to have been one of the chief authorities in astrological science. He is never called by any other name. From the manner in which the word is used in the Ramayana, I suspect that Rsyagrngais the mythical person intended.

A high authority is also Kagyapa, as the name is written throughout in the best MSS., whilst others now and then exhibit Kagyapa. As Kagyapa is the twilight 1, especially the morning twilight, it seems not proper to make him a propounder of the science of sun and stars which he precedes, in modern fabrications the form Kagyapa is a favourite one, perhaps to compensate for their making Pauliga and Paulastya out of I uliga! A Kag) apa (sic) known to Balabhadra (Indische Studiën, II. 247), cannotbethe Kagyapa of Varaha-mihira and Utpala. The quotations given by the latter are numerous, and show that the work was of the same kind with the GarglSamhita. In the commentary on Bfh. Samh. Ch. XVI. a whole chapter is quoted. One circumstance deserves mentioning, that where Varaha-mihira enumerates the Romans amongst those who stand under the influence of the Moon (Bfh. Samh. Ch. XVI. 6), the corresponding passage of Kagyapa

passes them in silence.

Another mythical authority in astronomy and astrology is Manu. Al-

1 That Kacjyapa is twilight appears from the word itself and from his myth. Kagyapa or Kacchapa stands for Kaksapa, from the same root which lias formed ksapa in Sanskrit; it is bodily the Greek KéxQOlp and allied to Latin crepusculum. From Kapyapa, as the morning twilight, it is said that the lights rise; see Taittir. Arany., I. 8. The morning twilight precedes the sun; the evening twilight comes after the sun, therefore Kagyapa is also called the son of Manci, the ray of the parting sun. Precisely so Cecrops is as well the father of Pandion, the All-bright or All-shining (from TICCV and di, didi; cf. Aphrodite), as the son of Pandion. The wife of Ka?yapa is Aditi (from • «not» and «diti»), the wife of Cecrops Aglaura (from a «not» and a word identical with Lat. gloria, allied to Skr. glau). Aditi, seemingly the reverse of Diti, is in nature and mythologj scarcely distinguishable from her, because the light gradually fades into darkness, and the reverse. All words therefore denoting light, oocasionally denote want of light, if not actually privation of light; Usas is dawn, usa is «night»; usasau «day and night»; so aktu; so the German «schimmer» means «darkness or twilight» in Dutch; so ksap «night» ('although not always «night» in the Vedas), goes over into crepusculum. Aditi as deficiency of light differs littlc, if at all, from Diti, considered as the beginning of gleam; yet the balance turns to making Aditi especially the beginning of light, the morning gleam, or even night, therefore she is the mother of the sun m all his forms; Diti «daylight» precedes the stars; the former is the mother of the Adityas, the latter of the Daityas, the brightest amongst the latter being Uijanas or Venus, or m mytholo^ical phrase he is the wisest (the brightest fellow) of the Daityas, he is their Master. Many other traits common to Cecrops and Kapyapa cannot be pointed out here. ihc Hindu commentators were not unaware of Ka<,■ y apa meaning «grey, darkish», for although the word is explainedby «jyavadanta, it is evident that this is only the application of the signification to a special case and that the broad meaning is 9yava.