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has stated that the days begin at midnight at Lanka, but elsewhere hesavs that the days commence from sunrise at Lanka.» 1

A little further on Varaha-mihira actually quotes a stanza which is taken eithei from Lata-acarya or from Simha-acarya, viz.

Madhyahnam Bhadragvesv astamayam Kurusu Ketumalayam |

Kurute 'rdharatram udyan Bharatavarse yugapad Arkah ||

«The sun, while rising in India, at the same moment causes midday in the region of the Bhadra^vas, sunset in that of the Kurus, midnight in Ketumala.» The next following verse is intended to be a quotation from Ar\ abhata and really makes part of one of Aryabhata's works, so that the foregoing necessarily must be a quotation, and not Varaha-mihira's own vvords, but how far he has changed the form, and, as observed before, whether it be from Lata or Simha, is uncertain. Albïrünï who, as we know, ascribes to Lata the Sürya-siddhanta, informs us that Lata held the view expressed in the verse adduced (Reinaud, p. 341); but that proves nothing, for the same view is held by all astronomers; and in the words only could there be any difference.

It may be observed en passant, that, in the opinion of Varaha-mihira, the meridian of Yavana-pura is considered to have a longitude west from the meridian of Lanka, of 60 degrees; for ten muhürtas in the night are said to correspond to sunrise, i. e. six o'clock in the morning, at Lanka 2 , and, as the night is reckoned from six o'clock in the evening, ten muhürtas later gives two o'clock after midnight. Rome was supposed to be 90 degrees west from the meridian of Lanka, so that the longitude of Yavanapura is | of that of Rome, and this, however erroneously the absolute longitude is given, suits approximately the situation of Alexandria, which accordingly may be understood by Yavana-pura. 3

Simha-acarya may, or may not, be the same asDurga-simha, mentioned by Colebrooke (Alg. XLIV). I have never lighted upon any other passage where the name occurs.

Far more renowned than Lata and Simha is Aryabhata, usually, but

< Tlns must be one of the instances of inconsistency for which Aryabhata iscritioised by Brahmagupta.

» Albirüm is at much pains to prove that Lanka is not Ceylon. That shows that he a 00rrect Wea about the latitude of Ceylon, but if he had known that even Ptolemy eommits the same error in supposing the equator to cut Ceylon, he would not have wondered at the Hindu astronomers committing, or perhaps repeating, the wrong estimation. s

' So far as the IonSitude is coneerned, Constantinople would answer as well as Alexandria, but I am not aware that any astronomer drew his first meridian over Constantinople, and without that it would not be taken as the point of departure.