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Siddhanta 1 and learnt that, barring various readings, it is identical with the MS. of the Berlin Library, so oddly called Dagagiti-bhasyam. The Berlin MS. has only one stanza more, — the concluding stanza, — translated by Whitney thus: «Bhüta-visnu hath thus comprehensively explained — having learned it by the favour of his teacher — the Dagagïti text-book (Dagagïti-sütram), of very obscure meaning, formerly promulgated by Bhatta.» This stanza combined with the title of the Berlin MS. leads me to surmise that its copyist was ordered to copy only the text of Aryabhata from another MS. containing text and commentary, and that he has blundered in the title and added the concluding stanza, because he thought it to make part of the text, it being in verse, while the commentary was in prose. 1 he Dagaglti, and no doubt the Siddhanta, were known also to Whish, as he gives the text and translation of the first stanzas of the Dagaglti. One of his statements that the Aryabhatïyam is a treatise on arithmetic and mathematics, and not on astronomy, is wrong, however. Aryabhatïj am is ver)- surely a name of the Siddhanta, although it may be that all theworks of the author are designated under that name.

Ar) abhata s Siddhanta gives us the author's date and his native city. We read at the opening of the work:


— namaskrtya |

Aryabhatas tv iha gadati 2 Kusumapure 'bhyarcya tajjnanam ||

«After prostration to Brahma, the Earth, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Ecliptic (or the stars), with reverence for the knowledge of Truth, Aryabhata, at Kusumapura, teaches, (viz. the following).»

Aryabhata gives his own date, vs. 12 of the 2nd chapter:

sastyabdanam sastir yada vyatïtas trayag ca yugapadah |

tryadhika vimgatir abdas tadiha mama janmano 'tltah ||

«When three of the four ages were past, and 60 times 60 years, then 23

years/>w;z my birth were past*, i.e. 3600—3101—23 = 476 A. D. This

date was not unknown to me before, but I hesitated between Bhüta-Visnu and Aryabhata. Quite independently of me Dr. Bhau Daji found out this very date, so that to him belongs the honour of having first made known the year of the birth of one of the greatest among Hindu astronomers.

1 I must here acknowledge my gratitude to my friend Dr. Gr. Bühler in Bombay to whose kindness and unremitting zeal I am indebted for these MSS. of Aryabhata and for another MS., about which in the sequel.

- There is one short syllable wanting here, most probably we have to read nigadati. In the former half the ja is evidently to be rejected.