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putation has been earned by him in his capacity of commentator. It is not known if he has written a commentary on all the works of Varaha-mihira, but as many of these as have been brought to light are provided with one. Those I have seen myself are the Samhitavivrti or Samhitavrtti, the BrhajJataka-vivrti, that on the Laghu-Jataka, and that on the Yogayatra. Besides these, there is extant and frequently met with, a commentary on the Satpancagika, a work by Prthuyagas, the son of Varaha-mihira.

The merits of Bhatta Utpala as a commentator are held high, and, methinks, deservedly so. To an unusual knowledge of the astronomical and astrological writings before his time, he adds the acquaintance with some authors in other branches of learning, like Caraka; with a stupendous memory, he combines judgment. Where he knows his deficiency, he tells us so with a candour rarely met with amongst persons of his class. So he admits, for instance, that he is only superficially acquainted with the technicalities of perfumery (gandhayukti). With a profound reverence for his author, whom he considers to be an incarnation of the sun, he earnestly endeavours to explain and to elucidate the text, without taking it as amere pretext for pouring forth his own wisdom. When a passage is ambiguous, he has recourse to the sound method of comparing the words of Varahamihira with those passages of more ancient authors whom he thinks him to have immediately imitated. This method has the additional value that thereby precious fragments of authors now utterly forgotten, and perhaps never to be recovered, have been preserved. The commentary on theBrhatSamhita would be well worthy of being separately edited; unhappily, it is rather bulky, containing the substance of somewhat more than twentythousand glokas; and a still greater barrier to such an undertaking is offered by the horrible state of all the Codices. In a certain sense, the merely explanatory part will find a substitute in the translation of the text, which is in preparation, and the more valuable portion of the additional matter may be inserted.

The MSS. made useofin preparing this edition oftheBrhat-Samhita are:

A, a MS. in the Library of Berlin, No. 849 (Chambers 484), text.

B, do. No. 851 (Chambers 291), text.

C denotes the text followed by Utpala, and embodied in his commentary ; different MSS. of this work have been consulted, so that C does not mark a particular Codex. In most cases the reading of Utpala can be ascertained with tolerable certainty, because the text, as adduced by him, and the following explanations verify each other. The difference between the different MSS. consists generally in clerical errors. The principal Codex of

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