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powers of the english cloth industry. Thus came about the great immigration of foreign artisans in the reign of Edward III. These artisans were chiefly flemish weavers, dyers and fullers. The dyers were doubtless mainly woad dyers, for it was specially in dyeing with woad that at this period english craftsmen were inferior to their rivals on the continent."28)

,,It was under Elisabeth, and especially in 1567, that the principal influx of dutch and walloon weavers took place. Owing to the cruelty of Duke Alva's administration the most skilful and industrious section of the people of the Netherlands decided to emigrate from their country, and crossed the Channel in tens of thousands, bringing with them their arts and industries. The exiles were welcomed by the british Government both as religious refugees and as a valuable accession to the economic resources of the nation. Indeed, they rendered England the priceless service of introducing a new branch of the woollen industry, viz. the manufacture and dyeing of superior fabrics known as the „new draperies", many of which had hithertho been either unknown in this country or were beyond the technical skill of british textile workers. These refugees by their exceptional skill and knowledge enabled England to wrest various secrets of the woollen manufacturers from their rivals, to built up her industrial supremacy, and in time to become the market of the world. Not only did these foreign textile workers use the best methods of fulling and dressing cloth, but they were skilled in dyeing with the best colours, and especially with woad. No longer was the english public driven to import cloths which had been dressed and dyed in Ghent or in Bruges. Henceforth they could be clothed with material from looms and woad vats at their own doors." 29)

Vanzelfsprekend zullen er nu binnen afzienbaren tijd engelsche publicaties over de ververij verschijnen. In 1583 verschijnt een vertaling van T Bouck va Wondre onder den titel:

,,A profitable booke, which declares divers approved remedies to take out spots and stains in silkes, velvets, linnen and

28) Jamieson B. Hurry — The woad plant and its dye — 1930 — Oxford university Press London: Humphrey Milford — page 58.

29) ]. B. Hurry — l.c. — page 62.