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been annihilated for good by the royal order which bade them renounce usury under pain of death1. Why should they have wished to stay ? How could they have stayed?

The well-informed little treatise of Karl Heinrich Schaible, "kein Jude aber ein Deutscher allemannischen Stammes", was ready for the press in 1886, before the Lee-Wolf thesis was published. Die Juden in England was printed in 1890 and speaks in the same tone as the leading English general historians: "Zu der ihnen festgesetzten Zeit hatten alle Juden England verlassen. — Mehr als 850 Jahre vergingen ehe die Juden Versuche machten sich wieder in England niederzulassen: die Tradition der Unterdrückung und die Gewalt der Könige über ihre Person und ihr Eigenthum schreckte sie ab."

The Rev. Moses Margoliouth (1845) advocates the accession of the Jews to the Anglican faith, which he himself embraced. On the historical question he represents a type of opinion which will not be referred to again in the sequel, since his appeal is clearly not to

historical evidence, but to exegesis. He writes: "The

Church of England was never without some converted Jews, so that Great Britain was never totally destitute of some of the scattered sheep of Israël. For the words of sacred story cannot be untrue: I will command, and I will sift the house of Israël among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve. (Amos LX. 9)." Since Bernard of Clairvaux this text has been regularly quoted in pleading for the admission of Jews to countries closed to them, and in saving them from extermination or expulsion, since the eschatological promises are depen-

1 Statute de Judaismo. 1275.