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asylum in England. Amador de los Bios states positively that England was among the first countries to receive them."

Don José Amador de los Rios is a Spanish littérateur of the second half of the nineteenth century, and in

his Historia de los Judios de Espaha y Portugal,

Madrid 1875/76, he is indeed positive enough in these eloquent words: (vol. III. p. 376—377).

"Confundidos en la general dispersion, corrieron a "impetrar salvacion entre los Moros del 'Africa, tierra "ingrata, que era otra vez desdichado teatro de gran"des infortunios y horribile sepulchro de las esperanzas

"del pueblo judio corrieron a implorar la clemencia

"de los pueblos del Norte, pidiéndoles amparo y hos-

"pedaje Igual fenómeno (anadiamos) se operaba

"en la otra parte del continente: Bayona, Burdess y "Nantes en Francia; Douvres, Londres y York en Ingla"terra ; Bruselas, Aquisgran, Leyden y Amsterdam en

"los Paises Bajos recogian con otras muchas ciu-

"dades los despojos de tan lamentable naufragio, en"riqueciendo su industria y su comercio con las especu"lacionesy la constante practica de aquellos desterrados".

The whole of this passage in Rios, from which I have selected the necessary, is given by him in quotation marks, as being borrowed from the author's own earlier volume: Estudios históricos, politicos y literarios sobre los Judios en Espana (1848; ensayo III, cap. I, p. 470). There, however, he does not quote any authority for his statement regarding England. Yet Rios must have been aware that his pronouncement with regard to England was contrary to the received opiniön of English historians, and that it was inneed of documenta-

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