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Did this same generous Bernard vent spleen against the oppressed Jews? To suggest this is not fair either to St. Bernard or to the Jews. Delving for the expressions in the bulky folio1 we find in Epistle 822: AdEpiscopem.... Spirensem, hortans arma contra infideles suscipienda, — (an exhortation to the unwilling men of Spierstojoinin rescuingthe Sepulchre; they had begged to be excused from so great atask, as being toounworthy

agents) — "Suscipe crucis signum Quid tarnen

arbitramur fratres? Nunquid manus Domini impotens facta est ad salvandum, quod ad restituendum sibi haereditatem suam, exiguos vermicvlos vocat? Nunquid non potest mittere angelorum plusquam duodecim legiones?"

Here are Munday's "base vermin", the exigui vermiculi2. They are the too reluctant Crusaders. "Mean worms" is nothing but an expression of their humility. The rest of the epistle, however, is mostly concerning Jews, and speaking about them the Abbot says: "Non sunt persequendi Judaei, non sunt trudicandi, sed nee effugandi quidem.... Taceo quod sicubi desunt, peius Judaizare dolemus Christianos foeneratores; si tarnen Christianos, et non magis baptizatos Judaeos convenit appellari."

The Jews are not to be massacred, not even to be driven away.... "Not to mention that if they are absent from any place, we grieve to say that Christian usurers 'do Judaize' even worse; that is, if it is becoming to call them Christians, and not rather baptized Jews."

Perhaps neither appellation is very becoming. Any-

1 Divi Bernardi opera omnia, Basiliae 1566.

2 Lewis' Dictionary translates eziguus a. o. by 'mean, paltry\