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§ 67.

decide judicially in accordance with what it conceives to be the law of nations, it cannot, even m doubtful cases, take its directions from the Crown, which is a party to the proceedings. It must itself determine what the law is, according to the best of its ability, and its view, with whatever hesitation it be arrived at, must prevail over ariy Executive Order. Only in this way can it fulfil its functions as a Prize Court, and justify the confidence which other nations have hitherto placed in its décisions."

Enfin, la Cour d'appel énumère les conditions dans lesquelles, d'après elle, les juges de prises anglais sont, par exception, Hés par les „Orders in Council" :

„The second point requiring notice is this. It does not follow that, because Orders in Council cannot prescribe or alter the law to be administered by the Prize Court, such Court will ignore them entirely. On the contrary, it will act on them in every case in which they amount to a mitigation of the Crown's rights in favour of the enemy or neutral,

as the case may be Further, the Prize Court will take judicially

notice of every Order in Council material to the consideration of matters with which it has to deal, and will give the utmost weight and importance to every such Order, short of treating it as an authoritative and binding déclaration of law. Thus an Order declaring a blockade will prima facie justify the capture and condemnation of vessels attempting to enter the blockaded ports, but will not preclude evidence to shew that the blockade is ineffective and therefore unlawful [comp. § 537]. An Order authorising reprisals will be conclusive as to the facts which are recited as shewing that a case for reprisals exists, and will have due weight as shewing what in the opinion of His Majesty's advisers, are the best or only means of meeting the emergency; but this will not preclude the right of any party aggrieved to contend, or the right of the Court to hold, that these means are unlawful, as entailing on neutrals a degree of inconyenience unreasonable, considering all the circumstances of the case." [Voir sur les représailles particulièrement § 327 et sa.}.

§ 67. C'est sur les principes développés par le Comité Judiciaire du

Lonseii ttive dans 1 affaire du Zamora (322) que les cours de prises britanniques, tant ceUes de première instance, que celle d'appel eUe-même, ont basé leurs décisions postérieures. Comp. § 57 et les sentences suivantes :

Alwina (347), navire neutre (néerlandais) capturé pendant son voyage de retour pour avoir transporté des articles de contrebande a 1'aide de documents faux. Dans cette affaire il s'agissait de la validité de certaines dispositions édictées par les „Orders in Council" en date des 20 aoüt et 29 octobre 1914 [voir aussi §§ 526 et 527].

„I have stated my view of the law at this stage before considering the effect of the Orders in Councü in reference to the provisions of the Déclaration of London by reason of the doctrines as to the force of the