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§ 119.

214

Turquie, article 39 de la loi de 1912:

„Les choses déclarées de bonne prise deviennent la propriété de 1'État "

120. Quelques autres décisions fournissent matière a la résolution de la controverse si, d'après le droit international, c'est la capture ou le jugement de prise, qui fait passer du propriétaire a 1'Etat capteur la propriété de la marchandise ou du navire saisis ; si, en d'autres termes, le jugement est constitutif (attributif) ou déclaratif de propriété. D'ailleurs, ce ne sont que les cours anglaise (Londres) et italienne, autant que nous sachions, qui se sont expressément prononcées sur ce point.

Grande-Bretagne.

Odessa and Woolston (206): „It is worth while to recall generajly the principles which have hitherto guided British Courts of Prize in dealing with a claim by a captor for condemnation. All civilised nations up to the present time have recognised the right of a belligerent to seize, with a view to condemnation by a competent Court of Prize, enemy ships found on the high seas or in the belligerents' territorial waters and enemy cargoes. But such seizure does not, according to British Pnze law, effect the ownership of the thing seized. Before that can happen the thing seized be it ships or goods, must be brought into the possession of a lawfulry constituted Court of Prize, and the captor must then ask for and obtain its condemnation as prize. The suit may be ïmtiated by the representative of the capturing State, in this country by the Procurator-General. It is a suit in rem [comp. §102], and the f unction of the Court is to enquire into the national character of the thing seized. It it is found to be of enemy character, the duty of the Court is to condemn

it if not, then to restore it to those entitled to its possession The

effect of a condemnation is to divest the enemy subject of his ownership as from the date of the seizure, and to transfer it, as from that date, to the Sovereign or to his grantees. The thing — the „res" — is then his for him to deal with as he thinks fit and the proceedmg is at an end.

Zamora (322): „Ut should be observed that with regard to ships and goods of neutrals in the custody of the Prize Court for adjudication, there are special reasons which render it reasonable that the belligerent should in a proper case have power to requisition them.] The legal property or dominion is, no doubt, still in the neutral, butultimate condemnation will vest it in the Crown, as from the date of the seizure as pnze, and meanwhile all beneficial enjoyment is suspended."

Les sentences citées ci-dessus, rendues Tune et 1'autre par la Cour suprème des prises de l'Empire britannique, démontrent que la conception anglaise du droit ne fait aucune distinction entre la.

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