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§ 287.


he must have. This domicüe, which for convenience, föllowing Dicey, I wül refer to as civil domicile, is founded on intention. It is generaUy accompanied by résidence, but résidence alone does not constrtutecivil domicüe. To ascertain this domicüe is sometimes no easy matter ; but 1 need not enlarge upon the tests and presumptions which the law employs to decide the question, or the difficulties which may attend such

^Sfapart from this civü domicüe, prize law recognises another rdatiorlship which a man may have with a country by trading mit This relationship is usuaüy termed a trade or commercial domtcile. Here intention plays a minor part. The intention to trade is usuaüy patent 1rem the conditions, andlt wül be but seldom that such questions of intention w\ll need to be determined as came before the Court in the case of The Harmony. Commercial domicile is a loose cloak easüy assumed and as easüy discarded. It is acquired by the mere act of residmg and trading in a country. It is lost so soon as a man gives up his résidence andtrL. It is a creature of drcumstance rather than m ention. So much so that it is qmte possible f or a m^ ^

and at the same time to bepossessed of a traded^^^f^ ence, which is immaterial to the conception of civü domicüe, is essential to constitute a trade dtmiicile, using that term in the sense generaUy attributed to it in the text books. But the résidence must, I think, be of semi-permanent character." *

Vok aussi les décisions de la Cour pour 1'Egypte relative au Derfflinger, n°. 3 (192), de la Cour de Londres concernant le RyPatxa (523) et du Comité Judiciabe du Conseü Privé dans 1 affaire de 1'Anglo-Mexican (890):

„The principles which ought to govern cases such as thepresent are not whoUy free from doubt. It appears, however, reasonably certain thatThe question whether a particular individual ought to be regarded as auenemyootherwise depends prima facie on Ms domicü, and domSlTs according to international law, a matter of inference bom résidence' By taking up his permanent résidence in a country other han that of his bbth, he fub^mts hbnsdf to and takes the benefits of the laws of that country, and in effect becomes one of its subjects.

(2) C'est pour, ou bien malgré, les motifs allegués sous (1) que la jurisprudence anglaise n'a pas reconnu la prétendue acquisitie d'un domicüe commercial en pays non-ennemi, aux propnétanes de marchandises saisies dans les drconstances suivantes :

Rostock (124), envoi de marchandises par un nommé Karl Festin, de Colombo (Ceylan), a Karl Festin, de Hambourg

The Procurator argues that, on the facts placed before the Coürt the'^operty has passen from the consignor, Karl Festin of Colombo£ the KSeltin, oFnambmg [vob aussi §256] and^evenüitha^no done so that nevertheless it is enemy property, as the trade domicüe of Karl