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773

§ 445.

Frtdland, n°. i (167), les trois premiers norvégiens, le dernier suédois, faisant route de New-York a Copenhague avec des cargaisons de vivres (lard, conserves, froment, huile, etc), de caoutchouc et de peaux. Après avoir démontré la destination ultérieure des marchandises a 1'Allemagne, et ce a 1'usage de ses forces armées, Sir Samuel Evans discute la question de 1'intention des parties, c.a.d. 1'élément subjectif, mentionné ci-dessus.

„Now as to the question of the proof of intention on the part of the shippers of the cargoes.

It was argued that the Crown, as captors, ought to shew that there was an original intention by the shippers to supply the goods to the enemy Government or the armed forces at the inception of the voyage as one complete commercial transaction, evidenced by a contract of sale or something equivalent to it. . . . If the captors had to prove such an arrangement affirmatively and absolutely in order to justify capture and condemnation, the rights of belhgerents to stop articles of conditional contraband from reaching the hostüe destination would become üugatory....

In the fust place, it may be observed that it is not necessary that an intention at the commencement of the voyage should be established by the captors either absolutely or by inference. [Citation de la décision conf61?,^. le Ber™«da (3 Wall. 514), en rapport avec ceüe concernant le WtUiam (5 C. Rob. 385), n'exigeant que „an intention, either formed at the tune of the original shipment or afterwards".]

.... It need not be an „intention" proved strictly to have existed at the begmning of the voyage, or as an obligation under a definite commercial bargain. If at the tune of the seizure the goods were in fact on their way to the enemy Government or its forces as theb real ultimate destination by the action bf the shippers, wherever theb project was conceived, or however it was to be carried out, if, in truth it is reasonably certain that the shippers must have known that that was the real ultimate destination of the goods .... — the belligeient had a right to stop the goods on theb way "

Dans les jugements ultérieurs la jurisprudence anglaise s'est réformée en ce sens que la destination ennemie peut être donnée aux marchandises non seulement par 1'expéditeur, mais encore par toute autre personne qui est en mesure de contróler leur destination finale, ou plutöt, que c'est 1'intention de cette personne seule qui est décisive. Voir :

LOUISIANA, TOMSK, NORDIC, JoSEPH W. FORDNEY (908). In COn-

sidermg on the principle of continuous voyage what is the 'ultimate destination of goods which are in theb nature conditional contraband lUs the intention of the person who is in a position to control such destination which is really material. Had Klingener and Fritsch (consignées

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