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907

§ 520.

décision de la Cour de Londres relative a une cargaison de 15,550 sacs de fèves de cacao destinés et appartenant a des ressortissants ennemis, saisie k bord du vapeur neutre (hollandais) Rijn (749) :.

„The next question which arises is whether the claimants can invoke article 43, and claim the benefit of compensation under that article. This is a question of law and of fact. As to the law, I think it is clear from the terms of the article and of the comment that it was only intended to comprehend neutral ships and cargoes, — that is, it applies only to ships of neutrals innocently carrying cargo which turned out in fact to be contraband, and to cargo of neutrals which was in fact contraband, and was innocently laden and carried on a neutral ship. If the cargo was contraband, both the enemy ship carrying it and the cargo, to whomsoever it belonged, would be subject to capture and condemnation; and an enemy cargo on a neutral ship would also be similarly subject, notwithstanding the Déclaration of Paris."

La controverse avait été déja discutée plus amplement a propos de la saisie d'une cargaison de minerai de chrome, appartenant a une société ennemie et chargée a bord du voiher neutre (norvégien) Sörfareren (198), parti de la Nouvelle Calédonie dans le mois de juin 1914 et arrêté en mer le 2 novembre 1914, après que ledit minerai eut été déclaré contrebande absolue par „Order bi Councü" en date du 29 octobre 1914.

„It remains to be considered how (the enemy contraband goods) should be dealt with by this Court. Article 43 of the Déclaration of London was referred to. It wül be observed that (in that article) the vessel is persoiüf ied : and the knowledge under consideration is that of the vessel. The Sörfareren, when encountered at sea, was aware of the outbreak of hostilities, but was not aware, or, at any rate, there was no evidence that she was aware, of the déclaration of contraband, affecting her cargo. The déclaration of contraband was made on October 29. What is the meaning of the provision that the contraband in such a case cannot be condemned except on payment of compensation ? Who has the right to claim compensation or to resist condemnation without compensation ? Of course, contraband may be not only carried on neutral vessels, but may also be the property of neutrals. — The Déclaration of Paris excepted contraband of war from the protection agreed to be afforded to enemy goods on neutral vessels, and to neutral goods on enemy vessels, even when the contraband goods were neutral property. — The aim and object of these articles of the Déclaration of Paris were the safeguarding in favour of neutrals of theb shipping and theb property. —- In my opinion article 43 of the Declapation of London was not intended to save from condemnation contraband belonging to the enemy. If the article were construed strictly, it might be contended with some reason that the only protection intended was in favour of neutral vessels against» the consequences to them of the condemnation of the cargo or certain pro-

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