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§ 573,

between the subjects of the belligerent countries* must be suspended, and nomtercourse can legally be carried on between the subjects of the hostile States but by the special license of their respective Governments"; and in Christopher Robinson's note to this case (at pages 10 and n) is cited a passage from the Black Book of the Admiralty (the original of which is the most precious possession entrusted to the President for the time being of this Division) as follows : „In the ancient practice of the Court of Admiralty (says the editor) we find it laid down : Item, soit enquis de tous ceux qui entrecommunent, vendent, ou achatent-, avec aucuns des ennemis de Messieur le Roi sans licence especiale du Roi, ou de son admiral. — Black Book, page 76."

No doubt it was with cases of commercial intercourse that Lord Stowell was dealing in The Hoop and The Cosmopolite....

In the United States of America the Suprème Court has given a very wide range to the „intercourse" which is prohibited by the rule we are dealing with. [Suivent quelques citations des décisions de la Com Suprème des Etats-Unis dans les affaires The Rapid [1814] et The Julia [1814] et du Commentaire de Valin sm 1'Ordonnance de la Marine francaise de 1681 ; au coms de ces citations on lit, entre autres, la citation suivante:] „Nor is there any différence between a direct intercourse between the enemy countries and the intercourse through the medium of a neutral port. The latter is as strictly prohibited as the former — The Jonge Pieter [1801]" [comp. aussi ci-dessus, §482, (X)|."

Alors la com passé a la question relative au commerce des alliés :

„It remains to note a rule of a correlative nature, that whatever inter^ course, commercial, trading, or otherwise, is prohibited, the same obligations are laid upon the citizens ot an ally as upon the subjects of a single belligerent State, and the same penalties of confiscation fall upon allied citizens as upon such subjects on non-observance of the obligations. — Statements to this effect are found in the dictum from the judgment in The Hoop and in the passage from Pratt's Story, which have already been cited. But in The Neptunus the doctrines as to the position of alhes were material to the décision .... [Suivent quelques citations du jugement de Lord Stowell en cause The Neptunus et des ouvrages des auteurs Wheaton et Calvo, auxquelles nous empruntons les passages suivants :J „So intimate and imperative are the neutral duties of aUies bound to each other by sacred and solemn bonds to fight a common foe that I believe the true rule to be that whatever intercourse with an enemy is prohibited by International Law, no relaxation whatever can be allowed by one State, unless expressly sanctioned by the latter."

Finally, it is clear that the rule must be enforced and confiscation decreed whether a person engaging in the prohibited intercomse acts innocently, in good f aith, and in pursuance of advice honestly believed to be sound, or of licences or permissions honestly believed to be valid. The authorities for this are numerous. The Hoop in itself would be suf fi-