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§ 693.

IIQO

dans des paniers plombes par radministration des postes espagnoles et dont les papiers de bord ne révélaient pas le veritable contenu ; — Rioja, n°. i (177) : découverte de 25 füts d'essence de térébenthine, expédiée sous une dénomination fausse.

Grande-Bretagne : papiers faux.

La question fut posée pom la première fois dansl'affane des Kim, Alfred Nobel, Björnstjerne Björnson and Fridland, n°. 1 (167), oü un chargement de caoutchouc était désigné dans les papiers de bord par le terme „gum" au lieu de „rubber" :

„The goods were invoiced as rubber. Much evidence was given on both sides upon the question whether „gum" was an accurate or a false description of the goods. After weighing the evidence I have come to the conclusion .... that its use in the manifest.... was adopted in order to avoid the inconvenience or difficulties which would result from a search and possible capture. — Any concealment or misdescription, or device calculated and intended by neutrals to deceive and to hamper beüigerents in their undoubted right of search for contraband, wül, whüe I sit in this Court, weigh heavüy against those adopting such courses when any presumptions or inferences have to be considered. Neutrals are expected to conduct theb neutral trade during the war not only without having recourse to fraud or false papers but with candour and straightforwardness."

La même „misdescription" se retrouve dans 1'affabe du Ran (1185a).

Dans 1'affaire Alwina (347) la question se posait en rapport avec la doctrine anglaise sm la confiscabüité d'un navire neutre saisi pendant son voyage de retour, pom cause de transport de contrebande effectué au moyen de papiers faux [voir aussi § 527]. Dans eet ordre d'idées la Com de Londres cita, e.a., les mots suivants du juge américain, Mr. Story, conseüler dans la Cour Suprème, dans une décision de 1834 :

„The beüigerent has a right to reqube a' frank and bona fide conduct on the part of neutrals, in the course of their commerce in times of war; and if the latter wül make use of fraud, and false papers, to elude the just rights of the belhgerents, and to cloak theb own illegal purposes, there is no injustice in applying to them the penalty of confiscation

Von aussi: Sörfareren (198) et Axel Johnson (773):

„I wiü add that the claimants, upon the undisputed facts, pretended, and falsely pretended, that the wool had been transferred and delivered to B. before shipment, and that he was an independent shipper, and not the German vendors. Following upon this project the büls of lading were falsely made out, and this was done with the avowed object of evading

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