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extent attract trade, as they offer more chance of finding a cirgo of some sort or other.

It is in keeping with the line of development of traffic, that, where at one time our country possessed many ports of comparative importance, now only known to tourists as the picturesque dead cities, e.g. on the Zuyderzee, the more important traffic in the Netherlands has been conceutrated into two ports, Amsterdam and Rotterdam, to which we will give our attention first.

For the full development of a port it is not only n^cessary that the harbor itself is in a good condition, that it offers ample space for mooring, and has a good harborplant, it must be easily accessible from the sea, and connected with the interior in such a way as to enable a regular traffic at low cost and without hampering delays.

In describing the ports of Amsterdam and Rotterdam, their channels of access to the sea will therefore be dealt with first; then their Communications with the interior will be described.


From early times Amsterdam has occupied an important place in commerce, more especially with the colonies. The vessels moored in the harbors opening out on tö the Y, which was in open communication with the Zuyderzee. The Zpyderzee being shallow, and a sandbank, the so-called Pampus, at the month of the Y, caused the continually larger vessels, generally arriving via den Helder through the Texel-strait, the greatest difficulty in gaining the port. They had to be lightened for the purpose.

When, after the French domination, a new period of economie prosperity began, King William I recoghised that a complete alteration of the port was necessary for the development of the capital. He caused a canal to be built from Amsterdam via Alkmaar, to the port of den Helder, situated on the Texel-strait. This canal, the Great North-Holland Canal (Groot Noord-Hollandsch Kanaal,) constructed between 1819 and 1825 costs / 11,000,000 ($ 4,400,000), and 6