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The Arnhem assoeiation Caecilia, established in 1591 and even now in flourishing condition, the Collegium Musicum at Amsterdam, which, thanks to Jan Pietebsz. Sweelinck, throve so well in the beginning of the 17th century, the Collegium Musicum Ultrajectinum at Utrecht (established in 1621) and the Amsterdam Chamber of Music (1634) where all sorts of vocal and musical productions were brought before the public — these all bear witness to our ancestors' love of music. The English writer on the history of music Bubney (who visited this country in 1771) wrote, it is true, that the Netherlanders appreciated no music other than that of church-chimes and ringing ducats. But he is contradictedby history. Evidence is plentiful that music was assiduously cultivated both in public concerts and in the domestic circle.

In the 17*1* and 18th centuries numbers of writers on music have assertedthat music as an art and musical instruction were earnestly cherished here, and moreover this country has in those centuries produced masters in violin construction able to vie with the best Italian violin builders. The names of Joh. Cuypebs and Hkndbik Jacobsz (18* century) were well known and respected abroad, and in the beginning of the century the "clavecymbels" of Couchet and of the Ruckebs family of Antwerp were in demand everywhere. Besides, there were the great constructors of chimes, the two brothers Hemony of Amsterdam and others.

In short, though in those two centuries Netherlands composers were in abeyance, yet Netherlanders won fame in the practice and theory of music, as makers of instruments and writers of dissertations of a theoretic and didactic character. So well indeed was this country known for its love of music, that all the great artists (even Mozart and Beethoven when mere children) came hither to perform. Thus the famous Italian composer and violin virtuoso, Pxetbo Locatelli, for many years conducted concerts and governed musical circles at Amsterdam.

The history of the Netherlands, German, and French opera troupes of the 18th century cannot be attempted here. We will only mention that as early as 1791 (the year of Mozart's death) a German troupe gave at Amsterdam 6

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