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not live "by his pen", at all events not as a literary man. The Netherlands painter may rise above such questions with a smile, because, by the love of his work and by its appreciation abroad, even though he be deprived of monetary reward, he may become more than independent.

When the young Netherlands novelist reads about the years of poverty of a Zola, he may as well go out upon the street, even if it is toward night, since no "soirées de Medan" will ever follow upon his attic evening, even though he have the giant talent of Zola. He is in the dilemma of not being able to devote all his time to his work, for fear of spoilinghia disposition; while if he does, he forces himself to live in a world uncongenial to his artistic nature and warps his character.

Luxury, however costly, has some practical worth. How many painters of great talent — whom Jozef Iskaels so rejoicingly calls "potboilers" — have continued painting because of success in England and America I But the author, who never earns any money no matter how he works, still cüngs to his task. Why should he consider the wishes of the public, since, despite all compromises, he cannot buy with money the happiness of a free-as-an-artist life! He writes simply for his work's sake. Thus our recent literature, like that of the "Golden Age", attains ever-increasing independence, leading even to mind and language anarchism. This undeniable fact, however, need not prevent the pointingout of a foreign influence upon our literature of the present day, just as upon that of former periods. Later we will speak of the influences that are being exerted in this day, but now we will begin with those of earlier times.

The person, or thing, to be influenced mustexist. When did literature first exist here ? I will let the scholars answer this. In the "History of Literature" just published by Dr. J. Pbinzen Jls he says, in the Introduction: "I desire to begin this history with the first works that were written in the idioms belonging to the country now known as the Netherlands. These have a certain beauty, even though that was not primarily striven after; for their style, which was comparatively arbitrary, was really a secondary matter. 6

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